64 5 Preparedness and Resilience OBSERVATIONS 1. Measures to tackle one issue may conflict with another. For example, moving car parks underground save space but for high-risk properties along the coast, it may increase the risk of inundation due to storm surges. 2. Institutions operating critical infrastructures (energy, airport) consider the worst-case scenarios in their climate projections for adaptation and resilience planning, such as very high GHG emissions, high temperature of 45ºC, and up to ~2.5 m sea level rise by 2100. Other decision-makers adopt intermediate GHG emissions scenarios for their planning of less critical infrastructures and facilities. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Government Bureaux and Departments and academia can collaborate to identify the data and knowledge gaps needed on the various climate risks, including heat (a neglected focus), with the aim of filling those gaps to enable the authorities to set evidence-based policies, including unknown tertiary climate risks in Hong Kong but have happened elsewhere. 2. The Government, public utilities, NGOs, and the private sector should collaborate to intensify public understanding of risks and be prepared to play clearly articulated roles in defined emergency action plans. Greater attention should be paid to identifying vulnerable groups, including occupants in sub-standard accommodation. 3. Codes of practices, guidelines and regulatory requirements need to be reviewed holistically and upgraded for both climate mitigation and adaptation, and this is especially critical for development in low-lying ground and along the coastline, as well as buildings. 4. It is not too early to consider Hong Kong’s response to possible largermagnitude disasters and multi-hazard 3. Companies and users in different sectors of activities have varying circumstances with respect to adaptation and resilience, and assess their risks based on different parameters and probabilities, including the effectiveness and costs involved. 4. The entire Pearl River Delta is a flood-prone area. Extreme weather events could disrupt regional transport networks and supply chains. Droughts, such as in 1963, would have regional impact on water resources. 5. Hong Kong people’s awareness and preparedness for disasters is relatively low (~25%) according to a Hong Kong Red Cross survey in 2021. With respect to electricity supply, end-toend resilience will require actions on the part of users. 6. More data and research are needed to identify different types of risks and the high risk locations, the vulnerable groups affected, the range of intervention measures, better early warning strategies and what the public could do for self-help. 7. In addition to urban planning means, green building designs could also contribute to ‘Cooling Hong Kong’ as buildings is a major source of urban heat especially in high-density districts. scenarios (e.g. severe storm surge, landslides and flooding occurring at the same time), such as whether public sector buildings and facilities could be deployed as emergency centres and temporary shelters. 5. Greater transparency about the actions being considered and planned with respect to adaptation is needed for the whole of the GBA, as all constituent parts of the region have an interest in better regional resilience; and to consider whether a GBA collaborative mechanism should be established for adaptation and resilience.