Science Focus (issue 022)

Dear Readers, Welcome to a new issue of Science Focus. I hope you have overcome the inevitable disruption to your life and study due the latest wave of COVID infections. As always, our goal is to transport you to the wonderful world of scientific discoveries, as an alternative to traveling abroad. How many of you struggle to stay alert for school lessons, especially after lunch? We consider what goes on in the brain during a food coma and why such phenomenon may be advantageous to our ancestors. Speaking of lunch, how often do you have a plate of calamari with ketchup? Next time you do, please spare a thought on the rather intelligent squid. In some countries, experiments on cephalopods are highly regulated because of their well-developed nervous system that enables them to process and remember painful experiences. In another article, you may also learn why the physical and chemical properties of ketchup conspire against a smooth pour. For those of you who are interested in astronomy, have you heard of the name Jocelyn Bell Burnell? Her brilliant discovery of pulsars led not only to belated fame. She has used her professional influence and prize money to promote equality in science. A truly inspirational story. Finally, I wish all of you a healthy and happy summer. I hope to meet some of you in outreach activities, organized by the School of Science, online or in person. Before then, let’s stay connected via our Science Focus social media pages. Yours faithfully, Prof. Ho Yi Mak Editor-in-Chief 親愛的讀者: 歡迎閱讀最新一期《科言》。希望最近一波疫情在生活和學習上沒 有為大家帶來太大的不便。一如既往,我們會跨越時間地域帶大家進入 有趣的科學世界,暫且忘卻未能旅遊多時之苦。 除了在早上,你們試過在午飯後幾經掙扎才能提起精神上課嗎?我 們會探討在飯氣攻心時腦部發生的事情,以及飯氣攻心這個現象為甚 麼可能對我們的祖先帶來優勢。說到「食」,到訪西餐廳時你們會叫炸 魷魚圈配茄汁嗎?下次吃魷魚圈時,不妨花數秒想想那聰穎的魷魚;由 於頭足類動物的神經系統非常發達,使牠們能產生和記住疼痛感,因此 與頭足類動物相關的實驗在某些國家是受到嚴格規管的。在另一篇文 章中,你會學到為甚麼茄汁的物理和化學性質使我們永遠不能輕易倒出 它。對天文學有興趣的你聽過 Jocelyn Bell Burnell 的名字嗎?發現脈 衝星不僅為她帶來遲來的名聲,透過個人影響力和巨額獎金,她還深耕 細作致力促進科學上的平等,最終促成一個鼓舞人心的故事。 最後,我希望大家在夏日裡也能保持健康和心境愉快。希望能在理 學院舉辦的一些外展活動裡在線上或親身見到大家,但在這之前,讓我 們透過《科言》的社交平台保持聯繫吧! 主編 麥晧怡教授 敬上 Message from the Editor-in-Chief 主編的話 Copyright © 2022 HKUST E-mail: Homepage: Scientific Advisors 科學顧問 Prof. Jason Chan陳鈞傑教授 Prof. Stanley Lau 劉振鈞教授 Prof. Danny Leung 梁子宇教授 Prof. Tim Leung 梁承裕教授 Prof. Julie Semmelhack Prof. Yi Wang 王一教授 Editor-in-Chief 主編輯 Prof. Ho Yi Mak麥晧怡教授 Managing Editor 總編輯 Daniel Lau 劉劭行 Student Editorial Board學生編委 Editors 編輯 Sonia Choy 蔡蒨珩 Peace Foo 胡適之 Kit Kan 簡迎曦 Dana Kim 金娥凜 Henry Lau 劉以軒 Sirius Lee 李揚 Lambert Leung 梁卓霖 Aastha Shreeharsh Graphic Designers 設計師 Tiffany Kwok 郭喬 Charley Lam 林曉薏 Cheuk Hei Tsang 曾卓希 Contents Science Focus Issue 022, 2022 What’s Happening in Hong Kong? 香港科技活動 HAYABUSA2~REBORN 1 隼鳥2號—星源再覓 Parade of the Five Planets – June 18-28, 2022 五星連珠— 2022年6月18至28日 Amusing World of Science 趣味科學 Shuffle Playlist. Shuffle Playlist. Shuffle Playlist… 2 這個隨機播放清單……不太隨機! Lost Lessons – Succumbing to the Inescapable Food Coma 6 飯氣攻心—害我們上課睡著的惡作劇把戲? MythBusters: The Golden Ratio Around Us 10 流言終結者:黃金比例真是無處不在嗎? The Science of Ketchup: From Physics to Microbiology 14 茄汁的科學:從物理到微生物學 Invade and Adapt – Genome Evolution via Transposable Elements 17 融為一體的不速之客—轉位子與基因組演化 Science in History 昔日科學 Transcending the Prizes: Jocelyn Bell Burnell 20 超越一切殊榮- Jocelyn Bell Burnell Science Today 今日科學 The Amazing Cephalopods 23 地球上的「外星智慧生物」:頭足類動物